Career Opportunities in Criminal Justice

Thinking about a career in criminal justice? Perhaps you’d like to patrol the streets and arrest suspects, investigate crimes using high technology, or even help convicted offenders to rebuild their lives. In the United States there are a wide variety of criminal justice careers to choose from:

o Private detectives and investigators assist individuals, businesses, and attorneys by collecting and analyzing information.

o Probation officers-in some states called community supervision officers-supervise people who have been placed on probation.

o Correctional treatment specialists-also known as case managers-counsel offenders and create rehabilitation plans for them when they return to regular life.

o Parole officers supervise offenders who have been released from prison on parole.

o Pretrial services officers conduct pretrial investigations, which help determine whether persons who have been arrested should be released before their trial.

o Uniformed police officers have general law enforcement duties.

o Sheriffs and deputy sheriffs are county law enforcement officers.

o State police officers-also called state troopers or highway patrol officers-work for a state government and patrol highways to enforce motor vehicle laws and regulations.

o Detectives are investigators who gather information and evidence for criminal cases.

o Fish and game wardens enforce state and local hunting, fishing, and boating laws.

o Federal law enforcement opportunities include the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Department of Homeland Security, Federal Air Marshals, and many others.

o Many Federal agencies employ police and special agents, including the Bureau of Indian Affairs Office of Law Enforcement, the U.S. Postal Service, the Forest Service, and the National Park Service.

o Many Federal agencies employ police and special agents, including the Bureau of Indian Affairs Office of Law Enforcement, the U.S. Postal Service, the Forest Service, and the National Park Service.

What are your prospects? The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts steady job growth for many law enforcement careers through the next decade. Career prospects may vary according to the exact profession. Opportunities in local police departments, for example, are predicted to be excellent for individuals who meet personal, psychological, and physical qualifications. Opportunities are also expected to be excellent for qualified computer forensic investigators.

Wages and benefits for criminal justice graduates can be impressive. For example, in the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics report of May, 2006, police and sheriff’s patrol officers had median annual earnings of $47,460. Median annual earnings of detectives and criminal investigators were $58,260, while median annual earnings of police and detective supervisors were $69,310. Not too shabby!

Criminal justice degree training can help. People who want to enter the field of criminal justice can often begin their careers after earning associate degrees or certifications from dedicated criminal justice schools. The more you study, the further you might go. Criminal justice degrees, both bachelors and masters, are offered through many online and on-campus schools throughout the country. There are also federal and state safety training centers that offer ongoing courses to working professionals in counterterrorism, self-defense, and crowd control.

Many graduates of criminal justice degree programs find work as private security consultants for banking institutions, manufacturing and high-tech companies, and government agencies. With additional training they may go on to other careers, attending law school and becoming public defenders or prosecutors.

How do you get started?

The best way to research your options is to go online to a free college directory website like the one below. You can enter the search terms that are appropriate for you (such as “criminal justice, Miami, Florida,” or “online court reporter degrees”). You’ll be presented with free information about the programs that meet your criteria. Compare features such as financial aid, career services, and flexible schedules. Narrow down your choices and make your application. In less time than you think you could be training for a rewarding new career.

Warez and the Crack Factor of Internet Piracy – Can Piracy Law Stop Crack Addiction?

Warez often originates from hackers that crack a code for the thrill of the challenge. But “crackers,” those in the hacker world who crack and profit from software piracy, have capitalized on the efforts of hackers and their cracked codes – successfully building a billion dollar international underground economy. This underground community of “cracker” pirates thrives on international software and Internet piracy.

Litigators, copyright holders, and media giants are working together with law enforcement agencies to beat down the doors of the pirates’ virtual underground warehouses. New copyright laws and international piracy treaties are on the table at nations across the world, awaiting rewritten code to revitalize current piracy laws and keep up with the swift currents of Internet technology. FBI operations go undercover by names such as the 2001 Operation Buccaneer, Operation Bandwidth, and Digital Piratez, and the more recent Operation Site Down, Operation Copycat, Operation Jolly Roger and Operation Fast Link. Warez Operation Buccaneer resulted in 58 search warrants worldwide – which was the “largest” crackdown of 2001. Operation Bandwidth corralled the pirates by setting up a fake warez software piracy website. The Digital Piratez operation resulted in only 9 warrants. This was just the beginning of the Warez crackdown and the FBI’s foray into the world of crack addiction.

The warez pirates continue to circumvent the piracy laws that are on the verge of crumbling down their underground economy. As they continue their overseas pirating escapades – so to does the FBI continue their undercover operations. A 2008 United States Department of Justice report summarizes the statistics of the warez operations Sitedown and Fastlink – which resulted in 108 felony convictions, confiscation of over one-hundred million dollars worth of pirated software, and 200 search warrants that traveled to over 15 countries. Far more than the 58 search warrants that served the pirates of 2001. In 2007, there were 217 intellectual property cases filed. Letters from hackers under investigation litter the Internet – warning their co-conspirators to “get out” before it’s too late.

The FBI wasn’t alone in the warez crackdown operations. Fifteen countries assisted the US in their search for warez piracy. Suppliers who supply the hardware to a warez website, Scripters who help build a website, Brokers who develop active groups, and Encoders who overwrite the copyright protection, have all been held liable in federal court. Charges included not only copyright infringement, but also conspiracy to commit copyright infringement, circumventing copyright infringement and trafficking illegal goods.

Piracy law will continue to gain attention by law enforcement agencies and warez pirates. The US House unanimously approved the Prioritizing Resources and Organization for Intellectual Property Act which allows for current federal law to be rewritten for liberal seizure procedures and the creation of a position for a presidentially appointed U.S. Intellectual Property Enforcement Representative. It also creates a new division in the Department of Justice for intellectual property enforcement and ten positions within embassies. Internet piracy is being tracked daily by the feds. But the heat won’t be putting out the pirates completely anytime soon.

The warez scene is addictive. Hackers live for the challenge of cracking a code – even if there isn’t any financial gain. Warez groupies get a rush from seeing how fast a cracked file can start spreading like wildfire. Pirates that serve international traffickers prey on these addictions – offering slick trades of expensive hardware and digital ware that feeds the warez scene. Piracy laws are building up strength to fight billions of dollars of intellectual property theft and copyright infringement. But they are also fighting an addiction. And addictions can skew perceptions. The hackers and crackers of the warez scene might not see the reality of piracy law until the Feds come knocking at their door. Reality will then strike as hard as the clang of iron bars.

Staying Away From the US Department of Justice Virus

Department of Justice Virus is one of the latest threats from Ukash virus group that try to attack people living in the United States of America. This threat belongs to the category of ransomware, so it is designed to get inside the system secretly and then try to rip users off. Just like other related viruses such as the money pack virus – it creates lots of troubles for its victims by locking the system down. This results is complete system’s take over – user becomes incapable to get on the Internet, launch legitimate anti-malware programs or do other things on his PC. He only sees a forged Department of Justice Virus alert, which states that user is caught doing illegal activities on his computer. Before you fall for this alert, you must note that such organizations as Department of Justice do NOT collect their fines in such way. You must remove Department of Justice Virus immediately!

This scam is designed to use the same ways intrussion as all previous Ukash viruses: it uses spam emails, freeware, shareware and other sources to come inside undetected. Once there, it locks the system down and shows its only message, claiming that Windows system has been blocked because you have been using copyrighted content, visiting pornographic websites or even spreading malware. For that, now you have to make a payment of $200 using the Moneypak prepayment system. Here’s how this message looks like:

Your computer has been locked!

This operating system is locked due to the violation of the federal laws of the United States of America (Article: 1, Section 8, Clause 8; Article 202; Article 2012 of the criminal code of the U.S.A. Provides for the deprivation of liberty for four to twelve years.)

Following violations detected:

Your IP address was used to visit websites containing pornopraphy, child pornography, zoophillia and child abuse. Your computer also contains video files with pornographic content, elements of violence and child pornography!

(… )

You have 72 hours to pay the fine, otherwise you will be arrested.

(… )

No matter how trustworthy it seems, you must ignore this alert because it has nothing to do with Department of Justice. If you pay this $100 or $300 fine, you won’t have your computer unlocked and you will lose your money as well. In order to avid that, you should remove Department of Justice Virus as soon as possible.

HOW TO REMOVE THIS VIRUS

In order to remove Department of Justice virus, you should try following this information. It includes different methids that MAY work in this virus removal. Remember that manual removal methid can be used only if you have enough nowledge about computer’s system and its architecture:

* Users infected with Department of Justice virus are allowed to access other accounts on their Windows systems. If one of such accounts has administrator rights, you should be capable to launch anti-malware program.

* Try to deny the Flash to make your ransomware stop function as intended. In order to disable the Flash, go to Macromedia support and select ‘Deny’:

* Flash drive method:

  1. Take another machine and use it to download Spy Hunter or other reputable anti-malware program.
  2. Update the program and put into the USB drive or simple CD.
  3. In the meanwhile, reboot your infected machine to Safe Mode with command prompt and stick USB drive in it.
  4. Reboot computer infected with Department of Justice virus once more and run a full system scan with updated anti-malware program.

* Manual Department of Justice removal (special skills needed!):

  1. Open Windows Start Menu, enter %appdata% into the search field, click Enter.
  2. Go to: Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Startup.
  3. Remove ctfmon (don’t mix it with ctfmon.exe!).
  4. Open Windows Start Menu, enter %userprofile% into the search field, click Enter.
  5. Go to Appdata\Local\Temp and remove rool0_pk.exeDelete [random characters].mof file
  6. Delete V.class
  7. Run a full system scan with updated spy hunter program to remove remaining Department of Justice virus files.

UPDATE: There is a new Ukash virus, which uses the logo of the Department of Justice. This threat now says ‘ Your Computer Has Been Blocked’ The work of your computer has been suspended on the grounds of the violation of the law of the United States of America”. Similarly to the previous version of the Department of Justice virus, this ransomware shows a list of laws, that have been violated, and asks to pay the fine of $300 using MoneyPak prepayment system. Besides, it speaks to the victim!

The Benefits of Getting a Masters Degree in Criminal Justice

It is said that real learning starts at the graduate level of education. At this level, you are required to do more in-depth research and study. Society expects more out of you.

But are there benefits for the individual that embarks on this level of study? The answer is indeed yes. In this article, I discuss the benefits of getting a graduate masters degree in criminal justice.

With no particular importance attached to the order of presentation, they are:

1. A master’s degree in criminal justice prepares you for leadership, administrative, and management positions in the criminal justice system. You will become a leader, administrator, and manager of such criminal justice systems as the courts, correctional facilities, law enforcement organizations, private and public security organizations.

This gives you the power to chart the direction of such organizations. You will set the pace for other criminal justice personnel. You will be looked upon to set ethical standards and develop new methods of tackling criminal justice problems and issues.

This is just reward for attaining this level of education. It is a position and benefit that should not be taken lightly. The right person will use it to become an agent of change for the good of society.

2. It goes without saying that being leader, administrator, and manager of criminal justice organizations comes with the benefit of more money. A master degree holder makes $61,000 per year to start. This is compared to about $58,000 per year for a bachelor degree holder. When you attain the leadership position I discussed above, you stand to make well over $100,000 per year. A master degree in criminal justice does indeed have its rewards.

3. A masters degree in criminal justice gives you the opportunity to specialize in one area of criminal justice. While a bachelor degree program is broad in nature, a master degree program gives you the chance to become an expert in one area of criminal justice.

For example, you can get a masters degree in criminal justice with specialization in corrections. Your research and study will give you the opportunity to do in-depth study and analysis of the correctional system. Needless to say, with this type of in-depth study, you will come to be an expert in corrections.

This will put you in a position to benefit as your opinion is sought in issues relating to corrections. You maybe called to give your expert opinion in legal and legislative issues concerning corrections. You can make money as a consultant in such situations.

There you have it…..the benefits of getting a masters degree in criminal justice. What I have outlined above is by no means exhaustive. There are other benefits to getting this degree. Covering all of them is beyond what I can do in this short article. If you are still interested in finding out more benefits of getting a master degree in criminal justice, I urge you to look into it some more. You can do this by visiting websites that deal with the subject in more detail.

Note: You are free to reprint or republish this article. The only condition is that the Resource Box should be included and the links are live links.

Supreme Court Role Law Or Justice? – 1965 Editorial

Should the U.S. Supreme Court be a place of justice, or of law?

Though this question at first glance may appear to be one of those semantic traps – such as, “Have you stopped beating your wife? – its answer vitally affects your life and mine.

The traditional view of the court is that it is the final authority on the Constitution. Its only task, say political purists, is to decide whether laws passed by the legislative branch of the government are really legal.

Since the days of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Supreme Court has been undergoing a gradual change. It was he who initiated the practice of appointing “liberal” politicians to the bench instead of experienced judges.

Those of us today in their late forties can remember well Roosevelt’s audacious attempt to “pack” the high tribunal. He tried to get Congress to increase the number of judges from nine to 12 so he could appoint additional “sympathetic” politicians and thwart decisions which were overturning many of his New Deal ideas.

Congress, which until then had blindly rubber-stamped Roosevelt’s wildest proposals, finally rebelled and refused to tamper with the court machinery. It was the first twinge of alarm by the party faithful who had ridden into office on the Roosevelt landslide.

With the recent nomination, and certain confirmation, of former New Dealer Abe Fortas to the court, the transition from law to justice is complete. The test of a law now will be, “Is it fair?” rather than “Is it legal?”

The philosophical approach of the Supreme Court justices had remained about evenly divided between the jurists and the reformers until the death of Chief Justice Fred Vinson in 1953. Then President Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed California Governor Earl Warren to the post of Chief Justice. Unknowingly, Ike tipped the balance.

Warren had been a popular and able governor. He had been careful not to align himself with the liberals or conservatives. The mood of the country was “middle of the road,” and Warren seemed to be a model of neutrality.

Once relieved of the necessity of winning votes, Warren revealed himself to be a champion of individual rights as HE, not Congress, saw them.

After only two years on the bench, he wrote the now famous decision outlawing school segregation. He led the bench in abolishing school prayer and in reapportioning state legislatures on a “one man, one vote” basis. He also joined in the decision freeing some communists convicted of sedition, for which the John Birch Society still demands his impeachment.

For the past decade, Warren has consistently voted with the “activist” group of justices who evidently hold to the theory they can, and should, correct the shortcomings of a timid Congress.

Arthur Goldberg, during his short term on the Supreme Court, identified himself with the Warren outlook.

Now U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, Goldberg was a liberal, labor-supported Jew. In these days of minority deference, our presidents have felt it necessary to keep one justice of these exact political qualifications on the bench. Consequently, President Lyndon B. Johnson has tapped his long time friend, Fortas, to replace Goldberg. The balance for “fair” decisions remains unchanged.

There is no objection at all, on my part, to Fortas’ neat appeal to an important block of minorities. He is just the counterpart of the conservative southern Protestant and the moderate midwestern Catholic also carefully represented on the court. It’s likely a Negro will be the next justice.

I do find disappointing, however, the present state of political affairs which make such opportunistic appointments necessary.

Fortas is one more of a long line of non-judicial Supreme Court Justices to troop to the bench. He was general counsel of Roosevelt’s Public Works Administration at 29 and undersecretary of the Interior at 32. Now 55, he is described by President Johnson as “a man of humane and deeply compassionate feelings toward his fellow man – a champion of our liberties.”

Inevitably, the rhetorical question suggests itself, “Is it the duty of a Supreme Court justice to champion causes with enthusiasm, or arbitrate disputes impartially?

As a senior partner of a prominent Washington D.C. law firm, Fortas has defended such clients as Owen Lattimore, the U.S. State Department specialist accused of lying about Communist associations; and Bobby Baker, former Democratic Senate aide whose lucrative business dealings came under Congressional investigation last year.

More recently, Fortas attracted public notice when he attempted to get Washington D.C. newspapers to suppress the story last fall about the arrest of President Johnson’s aide, Walter Jenkins, on morals charges.

Congressman Durward G. Hall summed up my misgivings when he said recently before the House of Representatives, “There is a serious question whether Fortas will be able to exercise independence of his ties with the President – he has been a quiet participant in some of the more dubious transactions of the Johnson Administration.”

Many Americans, including myself, have two minds concerning the conflict between justice and law. Unfortunately, the two are not synonymous.

In the hand of shysters, bureaucrats, and grafters our laws are dangerous weapons. Somewhere the spirit of the law must prevail over arbitrary letters.

Yet, the personal convictions of men beyond reach of the electorate can not be allowed to transcend the will of the people as expressed by duly elected representatives.

Until there is less politics and more statesmanship on the Supreme Court bench, we will be better served by a court of law than one of men.

August 20, 1965

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